This equation is pretty simple and incredible useful for management because it looks at one of a department’s key components of success: its required rate of return. This component helps management evaluate whether the department is making enough money to maintain, close, or expand its operation. It’s essentially an opportunity costmeasurement based on the trade off of investing in capital in one department over the other. For instance, if management can invest company revenues in department A and earn a 15% return, department B would have to make at least 15% in order for the management to consider the investment. If department B doesn’t meet minimum 15% return rate, it might be shut down or redirected.
Annuities and retirement plans are generally lower risk instruments for generating income. Annuities pay out a certain guaranteed income for the lifetime of the life assured while retirement plans typically payout a monthly or annual income for a period of time. Both of these can be useful for retail investors to create a base income as part of a bigger portfolio to reduce overall portfolio volatility resulting from market fluctuations and uncertainties.
In equity valuation, residual income represents an economic earnings stream and valuation method for estimating the intrinsic value of a company's common stock. The residual income valuation model values a company as the sum of book value and the present value of expected future residual income. Residual income attempts to measure economic profit, which is the profit remaining after the deduction of opportunity costs for all sources of capital.